Publications

Publication
06.03.22
For most individuals who receive a prison sentence, the amount of time they will serve in prison is somewhat unpredictable because of officials’ discretionary capacity to exercise “back-end” release decisions, including parole release…
Report
06.01.22
“Indeterminacy” is the product of uncertainty, after a judge has pronounced a prison sentence, about later official decisions that will influence the actual time served by the defendant. The uncertainty extends over many future decisions,…
Infographic
04.19.22
Indeterminacy in prison sentences refers to the unpredictability of the actual length of time that will be served in prison compared to the length of the sentence pronounced by the judge. It reflects the degree to which back-end…
Publication
02.09.21
The Prison Release: Degrees of Indeterminacy Project state reports provide an overview of how each state approaches prison-release discretion and the relationship between rules for prison release and prison population size. We evaluate the…
Publication
05.15.19
Paroling authorities play an important, if often unrecognized role, in American prison policies. Discretionary parole processes decide the actual release dates for most individuals subject to confinement in 34 states. Additional leverage…
Publication
11.15.18
The Profiles in Parole Release and Revocation: Examining the Legal Framework in the United States examine the legal and statutory framework of state and federal parole release decision-making processes. 
Publication
08.03.18
Nearly one million people are released or supervised under conditions established by state paroling authorities each year. The appointed members of those paroling authorities determine whether and when individuals are released from prison…
Publication
08.03.18
In 2017, the Georgia State Board of Pardons and Paroles responded to a request for proposals by the Robina Institute of Criminal Law and Criminal Justice with a research project focused on reviewing and improving its management of parole…
Publication
05.01.18
The Robina Institute completed work with the Kansas Prisoner Review Board to improve and streamline their revocation process by reducing the number of offenders revoked on post-release supervision and reducing the time revoked offenders…
Publication
02.01.18
This report reflects the first product of a multi-year collaboration involving the Robina Institute of Criminal Law and Criminal Justice, the Pennsylvania State Board of Probation and Parole, and the Pennsylvania Commission on Sentencing.…