Michelle Phelps is an associate professor in the department of sociology at the University of Minnesota and a Robina Institute faculty member. Her research is in the sociology of punishment, focusing in particular on the punitive turn in the United States. Her current work focuses on the rise of probation supervision as a criminal justice sanction and its relationship to mass incarceration. She has also examined a variety of criminal justice topics, including changes in rehabilitative programming in U.S. prisons since the 1970s, the recent decarceration trend and its implications for inequality, and inmates’ wellbeing across prison contexts. Together with Professors Joshua Page and Philip Goodman, she is also working on a book tentatively titled Breaking the Pendulum: The Long Struggle Over Criminal Justice.